Rice fortified with the fortificant mix by dusting; or coated or extruded fortified kernels mixed with non-fortified rice in a ratio varying between 0.5%-2% is fortified rice.
Rice fortification is a cost effective, culturally appropriate strategy to address micronutrient deficiency in countries
with high per capita rice consumption. India is a leading rice producing country, with 22% of the total global rice
production and 65% of India's population consumes rice on a daily basis. The per capita rice consumption in India is
6.8 kilogram per month. Fortification of rice makes it more nutritious by adding vitamins and minerals, many of which
are lost during the milling and polishing process.
Rice can be fortified using dusting, coating or extrusion technology. Extrusion is the preferred technology for rice
fortification given the stability of micronutrients in the rice kernels across processing, storage, washing and cooking,
also in view of cost considerations.
In extrusion technology, milled rice is pulverized and mixed with a premix containing vitamins and minerals.
Fortified rice kernels (FRK) are produced from this mixture using an extruder machine. The kernels resemble
rice grains. FRK is added to non-fortified rice in ratio ranging from 1:50 to 1: 200 (ideal being 1:100)
resulting in fortified rice nearly identical to traditional rice in aroma, taste, and texture. It is then
distributed for regular consumption.
The cost of fortification is determined by a multitude of context specific variables such as the structure
and capacity of the rice industry, the complexity of the supply chain, the policy and regulatory environment
and the scale of the relevant programme.