Milk is one of the most nutritious foods. Vitamins A and D though important for various bodily functions and naturally present
in milk are removed along with fat when the milk is processed to produce toned, double-toned and skimmed milk.
At the processing level, four types of fluid milk are commonly produced in India: Fortifying standardized (Fat - 4.5%), toned (Fat - 3%),
double toned (Fat - 1.5%) and skimmed milk (Fat < 0.5%) with vitamin A and vitamin D will ensure that these will also reach consumers
who purchase low-fat milk and provide them with significant amounts of their daily needs of these vitamins.
The technology to fortify milk is simple. All the vitamins and minerals that can be added to milk are available in dry powder form as well
as in the liquid form. The fat-soluble vitamins are also available in an oily form as well as in the water soluble form. The fortification
process does not require any sophisticated equipment,
Liquid milk fortification: Liquid milk is fortified just prior to pasteurization or ultra-heat treatment,
and it is essential to ensure a good distribution of the nutrients in milk prior to any heat treatment.
Standardized, Toned, double toned, or skimmed milk may be fortified with the following micronutrients,
singly or in combination, at the level set by FSSAI.
Dried milk fortification: The simplest way to fortify dried milk is to blend dry forms of vitamins and minerals
with the dried milk powder, although oily forms can also be added. Unlike liquid milk, dried milk can be fortified either
prior to or after the heat treatment.