Milk is one of the most nutritious foods. Vitamins A and D though important for various bodily functions and naturally present in milk are removed along with fat when the milk is processed to produce toned, double-toned and skimmed milk.
At the processing level, three types of fluid milk are commonly produced in India: Fortifying toned (Fat - 3%), double toned (Fat - 1.5%) and skimmed milk (Fat < 0.5%) with vitamin A and vitamin D will ensure that these will also reach consumers who purchase low-fat milk and provide them with significant amounts of their daily needs of these vitamins.
The technology to fortify milk is simple. All the vitamins and minerals that can be added to milk are available in dry powder form as well as in the liquid form. The fat-soluble vitamins are also available in an oily form as well as in the water soluble form. The fortification process does not require any sophisticated equipment, Liquid milk fortification: Liquid milk is fortified just prior to pasteurization or ultra-heat treatment, and it is essential to ensure a good distribution of the nutrients in milk prior to any heat treatment.
Dried milk fortification: The simplest way to fortify dried milk is to blend dry forms of vitamins and minerals with the dried milk powder, although oily forms can also be added. Unlike liquid milk, dried milk can be fortified either prior to or after the heat treatment.